Minor Minerals   Even in muscule amounts, trace minerals are critical
to health
Mineral Action Food Sources Supplement Dosage Notes
Boron Builds strong bones, nails, and teeth.   Enhances brain function (alertness). Apples, carrots, grains, grapes, leafy vegetables, nuts, and pears. 50 micrograms-3 mg.   Deficiency (rare) worsens D defieciency. Supplemets containing more than 3 mg not advised.
Chromium

(picolinate)

Cofactor for insulin; useful in diabetes and hypoglycemia.   Helps reduce cholesterol. Brewer’s yeast, brown rice, cheese, legumes, mushrooms, potatoes. 50-800 micrograms.   Average American diet is chromium deficient. Suplements containing more than 3 mg not advised.
Copper

(citrate or protein-chelated)

Needed for healthy bones, joints, nerves, and tendons; blood cells. Almonds, avocados, barley, broccoli, garlic, green leafy vegetables, legumes, seafood. 1-2 mg.   Deficiency leads to osteoporosis, respiratory problems, and skin sores. Check tap water for excess (toxicity rare but may occur)
Iodine Critical in thyroid function Iodized salt, seafood, sea vegetables 150 micrograms.   Deficiency linked to breast cancer, cretinism, goiter, and fatigue. Some raw foods (crucifers, peaches, pears can block utilization)
iron

(ferrus sulfate, gluconate, fumarate)

Component of hemoglobin and myoglobin, which transport and store oxygen.   Fights
infection.
Eggs, fish, leafy greens, liver, meat, nuts, poultry, raisins, whole grains. 10 mg (men); 18 mg (women of childbearing age); C increases absorption. High levels are linked to cancer and heart disease.
Manganese

(citrate, gluconate)

Needed for healthy bones, nerves, and maintanance of blood sugar. Avocados, dried fruits, nuts, sea vegetables, seeds, whole grains. 2-10 mg.   Works well with B vitamins. Too much can interfere with iron absorption.
Molybdenum Component of several enzymes.   Protects against esophageal cancer. Beans, cereals, leafy greens, legumes, whole grains. 75-250 micrograms.   Deficiency may cause sulfite sensitivity. Overdose (5 mg or more) may be toxic or lead to gout.
 
Selenium Antioxidant.  Protects against cancer, heart disease. Brazil nuts, brewer’s yeast, eggs, liver.  (Processing of food lowers selenium.) 100-200 micrograms.  (Most US soils are low in this mineral.) Works with E.  Large doses (900 or more micrograms/day) may be dangerous.
Silicon Needed for bones and connective tissue. Apples, root vegetables, unrefined grains; horsetail. 2-20 mg (higher dosage helpful as silicon levels decrease in the elderly). Boron and calcium boost utilization.
Vanadium Builds bones and teeth.  Helpful in diabetes. Fish, olives, vegetable oils, whole grains; dill. 10-100 micrograms.  may interact with chromium supplementation. Diabetes need supervision with vanadium.
Zinc

(citrate, gluconate)

Necessary for growth.  Important in immune and reproductive health. Brewer’s yeast, fish, lamb, legumes, liver, oysters, sea vegetables, whole grains. 15-50 mg (higher dosage used to treat prostate enlargement). Do not take at the same time as iron supplements.  Doses above 100 mg/day supress
immunity.